Friday, March 13, 2020

The Capture of Inca Atahualpa

The Capture of Inca Atahualpa On November 16, 1532, Atahualpa, lord of the Inca Empire, was attacked and captured by Spanish conquistadors under Francisco Pizarro. Once he was captured, the Spanish forced him to pay a mind-boggling ransom amounting to tons of gold and silver. Although Atahualpa produced the ransom, the Spanish executed him anyway. Atahualpa and the Inca Empire in 1532: Atahualpa was the reigning Inca (a word similar in meaning to King or Emperor) of the Inca Empire, which stretched from present-day Colombia into parts of Chile. Atahualpas father, Huayna Capac, had died sometime around 1527: his heir apparent died around the same time, throwing the Empire into chaos. Two of Huayna Capacs many sons began to fight over the Empire: Atahualpa had the support of Quito and the northern part of the Empire and Huscar had the support of Cuzco and the southern part of the Empire. More importantly, Atahualpa had the allegiance of three great generals: Chulcuchima, Rumià ±ahui and Quisquis. In early 1532 Huscar was defeated and captured and Atahualpa was lord of the Andes. Pizarro and the Spanish: Francisco Pizarro was a seasoned soldier and conquistador who had played a large role in the conquest and exploration of Panama. He was already a wealthy man in the New World, but he believed that there was a rich native kingdom somewhere in South America just waiting to be plundered. He organized three expeditions along the Pacific coast of South America between 1525 and 1530. On his second expedition, he met with representatives of the Inca Empire. On the third journey, he followed tales of great wealth inland, eventually making his way to the town of Cajamarca in November of 1532. He had about 160 men with him, as well as horses, arms and four small cannons. The Meeting in Cajamarca: Atahualpa happened to be in Cajamarca, where he was waiting for the captive Huscar to be brought to him. He heard rumors of this strange group of 160 foreigners making their way inland (looting and pillaging as they went) but he certainly felt secure, as he was surrounded by several thousand veteran warriors. When the Spanish arrived in Cajamarca on November 15, 1532, Atahualpa agreed to meet with them the next day. Meanwhile, the Spanish had seen for themselves the riches of the Inca Empire and with a desperation born of greed, they decided to try and capture the Emperor. The same strategy had worked for Hernn Cortà ©s some years before in Mexico. The Battle of Cajamarca: Pizarro had occupied a town square in Cajamarca. He placed his cannons on a rooftop and hid his horsemen and footsoldiers in buildings around the square. Atahualpa made them wait on the sixteenth, taking his time to arrive for the royal audience. He eventually showed up in the late afternoon, carried on a litter and surrounded by many important Inca noblemen. When Atahualpa showed up, Pizarro sent Father Vicente de Valverde out to meet with him. Valverde spoke to the Inca through an interpreter and showed him a breviary. After leafing through it, Atahualpa disdainfully threw the book on the ground. Valverde, supposedly angry at this sacrilege, called on the Spanish to attack. Instantly the square was packed with horsemen and footmen, slaughtering natives and fighting their way to the royal litter. The Massacre at Cajamarca: The Inca soldiers and noblemen were taken completely by surprise. The Spanish had several military advantages which were unknown in the Andes. The natives had never seen horses before and were unprepared to resist mounted foes. The Spanish armor made them nearly invulnerable to native weapons and steel swords hacked easily through native armor. The cannon and muskets, fired from the rooftops, rained thunder and death down into the square. The Spanish fought for two hours, massacring thousands of natives, including many important members of the Inca nobility. Horsemen rode down fleeing natives in the fields around Cajamarca. No Spaniard was killed in the attack and Emperor Atahualpa was captured. Atahualpas Ransom: Once the captive Atahualpa was made to understand his situation, he agreed to a ransom in exchange for his freedom. He offered to fill a large room once with gold and twice over with silver and the Spanish quickly agreed. Soon great treasures were being brought from all over the Empire, and greedy Spaniards broke them into pieces so that the room would fill more slowly. On July 26, 1533, however, the Spanish became frightened at rumors that Inca General Rumià ±ahui was in the vicinity and they executed Atahualpa, supposedly for treason in stirring up rebellion against the Spaniards. Atahualpa’s ransom was a great fortune: it added up to some 13,000 pounds of gold and twice that much silver. Sadly, much of the treasure was in the form of priceless works of art which were melted down. Aftermath of the Capture of Atahualpa: The Spanish caught a lucky break when they captured Atahualpa. First of all, he was in Cajamarca, which is relatively close to the coast: had he been in Cuzco or Quito the Spanish would have had a harder time getting there and the Inca may have struck first at these insolent invaders. The natives of the Inca Empire believed that their royal family was semi-divine and they would not lift a hand against the Spanish while Atahualpa was their prisoner. The several months that they held Atahualpa allowed the Spanish to send for reinforcements and come to understand the complex politics of the empire. Once Atahualpa was killed, the Spanish swiftly crowned a puppet Emperor in his place, allowing them to maintain their hold on power. They also marched first on Cuzco and then on Quito, eventually securing the empire. By the time one of their puppet rulers, Manco Inca (Atahualpas brother) realized that the Spanish had come as conquerors and started a rebellion it was too late. There were some repercussions on the Spanish side. After the conquest of Peru was complete, some Spanish reformers - most notably Bartolomà © de las Casas - began asking disturbing questions about the attack. After all, it was an unprovoked attack on a legitimate monarch and resulted in the massacre of thousands of innocents. The Spanish eventually rationalized the attack on the grounds that Atahualpa was younger than his brother Huscar, which made him a usurper. It should be noted, however, that the Inca did not necessarily believe that the eldest brother should succeed his father in such matters. As for the natives, the capture of Atahualpa was the first step in the near-total destruction of their homes and culture. With Atahualpa neutralized (and Huscar murdered on his brothers orders) there was no one to rally resistance to the unwanted invaders. Once Atahualpa was gone, the Spanish were able to play off traditional rivalries and bitterness to keep the natives from uniting against them.

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Library Search Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

Library Search - Research Paper Example The need for more information or further assistance on the library search. Create the reference for the article selected using correct APA format including: authors, year, article title, journal name, volume number, issue number, page numbers, italics, parentheses, punctuation, line spacing, and hanging indent. Type a quotation (10–20 words) from the selected article using correct APA format including quotation marks, authors’ names, year, page numbers, and parentheses. Do not use words or ideas the authors cited from another source. Summarize the article in 80–110 words. Be concise and clearly cover the main points of the article. Use correct spelling, punctuation, and grammar. Do not include the article title, journal, authors, or citations. Nursing theory is based on the expansion and understanding evidence based nursing practices and the contribution to the evidences. It also focuses on more comprehensive and diverse patterns away from just the narrow focus. Carper constitute four fundamental patterns in nursing. The fundamental practices constitute ethical, personal, empirical, and anesthetic practices. Mode of inquiry for development of evidence on each of the values is done differently. Each of the practices are considered a theory on its own. Different lenses are provided by the different nursing theories which are essential for evidence based nursing practices. Perfect inquiry is appropriate for generation and fostering the theories. Use 80–110 words to clearly state how you will use information learned from this article in your future practice. Be concise and clearly relate article contents to your practice. Use first person, correct spelling, punctuation, and grammar. Details and specifics regarding your own future use of this information are needed. Information from the searches should be stored in a systematic and a convenient way that enables reference. The information is arranged

Sunday, February 9, 2020

Conflict Scenario Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words - 1

Conflict Scenario - Assignment Example The Myers-Briggs indicator has sixteen personality combinations and each represents differently. For example, Jane’s personality is an ESFJ type, which makes her helpful, friendly and very suited to her current job. However, although Brandon works in the same department and company as Jane, he has a different personality from Jane. The mode of handling conflict used by both Jane and Brandon is competition. This mode is assertive and both Jane and Brandon show they have a forceful personality. Because of this, conflicts arise, as they do not give way to cooperation. There is no win-win situation. To resolve the conflict between the two, there must be some form of cooperation and positive change that would benefit both sides in the future. This mode is collaboration and ensures cooperation is achieved by understanding the needs of one another. The supervisor ought to discuss the matter face-to-face with Jane and Brandon. When an agreement has been reached, the situation must be regularly monitored to ensure the method is going smoothly. The supervisor must remind the employees that each of them is important to the company. This is to ensure there is no jealousy or favoritism amongst the

Thursday, January 30, 2020

Bias in Abstinence-Only Education Essay Example for Free

Bias in Abstinence-Only Education Essay In addition to being an ineffective deterrent to unwanted pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases, abstinence only education prevents young women from making well informed decisions about their sexuality.   Cases of teen pregnancy and STD/HIV infections is on the rise despite the government allocating funds for abstinence only programs.   This paper seeks to look at the government policies with regard to abstinence-only education programs and its relationship with unwanted pregnancies. It is a known fact that sexual abstinence is being practiced in all countries in the world as a sure way of preventing sexually transmitted diseases and pregnancy.    Men and women of all ages who are not ready to accept the risks that accompany sexual activity embrace abstinence which is a normal and acceptable practice.   As a way of expressing love, affection and tenderness, majority resort to intercourse and sexual activity. Sex is also being used by couples to strengthen their relationships.   However, it has often been argued that using sex to cement relationships can distort one’s judgment.   Among women, having sex may strengthen the feeling of love but do not actually cement or deepen the relationship. Exploring sexual behavior within an environment of deep commitment where having children is considered as a possibility is always rewarding.   Majority of people are however not prepared for commitment hence opt for abstinence until they develop a stable relationship. Abstinence is 100% effective in protecting an individual from sexually transmitted.   However, if the majority of the population could realize its effectiveness, then we would not be having such headlines like the ones we have seen in the past of teen births being on the rise.   However, abstinence is not an easy practice considering how strong sexual drives are among humans. The rate of teen births steadily declined since 1991 and this could have been because of the intensive educational campaigns that were initiated during that period.   These campaigns included encouraging people to use contraceptives and condoms and enlightening people on the risks of Aids and sexually transmitted diseases.   However, today statistics now show an increase by 3% in teen births the first time ever in 14 years. (Wilson, Kelly, Patricia,2005) Is it that the sex education programs that the government adopted are no longer working? The government has tried to show some effort in curbing STDs and unwanted pregnancies. The first federal abstinence-only program was enacted in 1981 and this was designed primarily to support pregnant and parenting teenagers.   This came through the adolescent Family Life Act which was also passed the same year. AFLA also funded â€Å"abstinence-only† programs meant to encourage responsibility and self discipline among teenagers (Abstinence Only Programs 2008, p.2). Abstinence-only program’s purpose was to teach the general population and especially the teenagers how they stand to gain from abstinence. It also sought to teach abstinence from pre-marital to all schooling children.   The abstinence-only program was supposed to teach the values of abstinence with regard to unwanted pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases.   According to this program, the expected standard of human sexual activity revolved around a mutually faithful monogamous relationship.   However, with all these well clarified goals, current scientific research shows that this program is ineffective. A study of ‘abstinence-only-until marriages’ program inferred that the classes fail to serve its goal of delaying the onset of sexual activity the young people.   An evaluation of 11 of these programs showed that they do not have a lasting positive effect on the asexual behavior of young people (Ibid 4).   Instead of a positive effect on the young people they showed a negative willingness to use contraceptive because the program emphasized on contraceptive failure. It has often been reiterated that abstinence-only programs endanger the youths because adolescents are denied complete information.   These programs fail to provide contraception information and in some cases, they have been accused of providing wrong information which may lead to youths forgoing contraceptive use. Teens are exposed to pregnancy and sexually transmitted diseases because of lack of responsible sex education.   Only safer sex intervention can reduce unprotected sexual intercourse as compared to abstinence only programs.   The Federal Fund for abstinence -only programs have negatively influenced schools.   Avery good example involves the Gloucester High school in Massachusetts with the summer vacations beginning 17 girls at the school are expecting babies (Kathleen Kingsbury, Wednesday June 18, 2008). This proves further the failure of the program to curb pre-marital pregnancies.   In order to reduce the prevalence of this at the school a local pediatrician advocated for the prescription of contraceptives.   However, this has been met with hostility.   Amazingly it is the desire of these teens to get pregnant and this only proves how distorted their perception towards life is.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

Arthur Miller :: Biographies Bio Biography

A leading American playwright, Arthur Miller, b. New York City, Oct. 17, 1915, has enriched the Broadway stage for several decades. Although Miller's dramas take place in familial settings, he has made a reputation for dealing with contemporary political and moral issues. Miller began writing plays while a student at the University of Michigan, where several of his dramatic efforts were rewarded with prizes. In 1937, during his senior year, one of his early plays was presented in Detroit by the Federal Theatre Project. In 1944 his The Man Who Had All the Luck won a prize offered by New York City's Theatre Guild. With his first successes--All My Sons (1947; film, 1948), winner of the Drama Critics Circle Award, and Death of a Salesman (1949; film, 1952), winner of both the Drama Critics Circle Award and the Pulitzer Prize--Miller condemned the American ideal of prosperity on the grounds that few can pursue it without making dangerous moral compromises. Death of a Salesman, with its expressionistic overtones, remains Miller's most widely admired work. The keen social conscience evident in these plays has continued to manifest itself in Miller's writing. In the Tony Award-winning The Crucible (1953), for instance, he wrote of the witch-hunts in colonial Salem, Mass., and implied a parallel with the congressional investigations into subversion then in progress. The probing psychological tragedy A View from the Bridge (1955) questions the reasonableness of U.S. immigration laws. After the Fall (1964), which includes a thinly disguised portrayal of Miller's unhappy marriage to film actress Marilyn Monroe, offers a second, candid consideration of the congressional investigations in which Miller had been personally involved. Two one-act plays, Incident at Vichy (1964) and The Price (1968), deal with the universality of human responsibility and the guilt that often accompanies survival and success. Miller's later dramatic works include The Creation of the World and Other Business (1972), a play that seemed too openly didactic for both critics and audiences, and The Ride Down Mount Morgan (1991), which opened in London to mixed reviews. Imbued with a passionate morality and demonstrating the absolute need for responsible, loving connections between people, most of Miller's work is indeed didactic. Miller's writings outside the theater have been prolific and varied. His novel Focus (1945) is an ironic tale of anti-semitism. The screenplay for the Misfits (1961) is only one of several he has written. In 1969 he wrote In Russia, a travel piece with illustrations by his wife, the photographer Inge Morath.

Tuesday, January 14, 2020

Shadow Kiss Chapter 8

Eight FOR THE NEXT FEW DAYS, I followed Christian around without incident. And as I did, I found myself growing more and more impatient. For one thing, I was discovering that a lot of being a guardian was waiting around. I'd always known that, but the reality was harder than I'd realized. Guardians were absolutely essential for when Strigoi decided to attack. But those Strigoi attacks? They were generally rare. Time could pass – years could pass – without a guardian ever having to engage in any sort of conflict. While my instructors certainly wouldn't make us wait that long during this exercise, they nonetheless wanted to teach us patience and how important it was not to slack just because there'd been no danger in a while. We were also being held to the strictest conditions a guardian could be in: always standing and always being formal. More often than not, guardians who lived with Moroi families behaved casually in their homes and did ordinary things like reading or watching TV – while still staying perfectly aware of any threats. We couldn't always expect that, though, so we had to practice the hard way while in school. My patience level didn't do so well with all this waiting, but my frustration was more than just restlessness. I was desperate to prove myself, to make amends for not having reacted when Stan attacked. I'd had no further Mason sightings and had decided that what I'd seen really had been fatigue- and stress-induced. That made me happy, because those were much better reasons than being crazy or inept. But certain things were not making me happy. When Christian and I met up with Lissa after class one day, I could feel worry and fear and anger radiating off of her. It was only the bond that clued me in, though. To all outside appearances, she looked fine. Eddie and Christian, who were talking about something with each other, didn't notice a thing. I moved close and put an arm around her as we walked. â€Å"It's okay. Everything's going to be okay.† I knew what was bothering her. Victor. We'd decided that Christian – despite his willingness to â€Å"take care of things† – probably wasn't the best choice to go see about us getting into Victor's trial. So Lissa had played diplomat the other day and very politely spoken to Alberta about the possibility of us testifying. Alberta had told her, equally politely, that it was out of the question. â€Å"I figured if we just explained things – why it was so important – they'd let us go,† she murmured to me. â€Å"Rose, I can't sleep. †¦ I just keep thinking about it. What if he gets loose? What if they really set him free?† Her voice trembled, and there was an old vulnerability there that I hadn't seen in a long time. That sort of thing usually set off my warning bells, but this time, it triggered a weird rush of memories, of times past when Lissa had depended on me so much. I was happy to see how strong she'd become and wanted to make sure she stayed that way. I tightened my arm, hard to do while still walking. â€Å"He won't get loose,† I said fiercely. â€Å"We'll get to court. I'll make sure of it. You know I'd never let anything happen to you.† She leaned her head against my shoulder, a small smile on her face. â€Å"That's what I love about you. You have no idea how you'll get us to court, but you still push forward anyway to make me feel better.† â€Å"Is it working?† â€Å"Yes.† The worry still lurked in her, but her amusement dampened its effects a little. Plus, despite her teasing me about my bold promise, my words really had reassured her. Unfortunately, we soon found out that Lissa had other reasons to be frustrated. She was waiting for the medication to fade from her system and allow her full access to her magic. It was there – we could both sense it – but she was having trouble touching it. Three days had passed, and nothing had changed for her. I felt for her, but my biggest concern was her mental state – which thus far had stayed clear. â€Å"I don't know what's going on,† she complained. We had almost reached the commons. Lissa and Christian had plans to watch a movie. I half-wondered how difficult it would be for me to watch the movie and be on alert. â€Å"It seems like I should be able to do something, but I still can't. I'm stuck.† â€Å"That might not be a bad thing,† I pointed out, moving away from Lissa so I could scan the path ahead. She shot me a rueful look. â€Å"You're such a worrier. I thought that was my job.† â€Å"Hey, it's my job to look out for you.† â€Å"Actually, it's my job,† said Eddie, in a rare show of joking. â€Å"Neither of you should be worrying,† she argued. â€Å"Not about this.† Christian slipped his arm around her waist. â€Å"You're more impatient than Rose here. All you need to do is – â€Å" It was d? ¦j? ¤ vu. Stan leapt out from a copse of trees and reached for Lissa, wrapping his arm around her torso and jerking her toward him. My body responded instantly, no hesitation whatsoever as I moved to â€Å"save† her. The only problem was that Eddie had responded instantly too, and he was closer, which put him there ahead of me. I circled, trying to get in on the action, but the way the two were squaring off blocked me from being effective. Eddie came at Stan from the side, fierce and swift, pulling Stan's arm away from Lissa with a strength nearly powerful enough to rip it out of the socket. Eddie's wiry frame often hid how muscular he really was. Stan's hand caught the side of Eddie's face, nails digging in, but it was enough so that Lissa could wriggle free and run to join Christian behind me. With her out of the way, I moved off to the side, hoping to assist Eddie – but there was no need. Without missing a beat, he grabbed Stan and threw him down to the ground. Half a breath later, Eddie's practice stake was poised right above Stan's heart. Stan laughed, genuinely pleased. â€Å"Nice job, Castile.† Eddie withdrew the stake and helped his instructor up. With the action gone, I could now see how bruised and blotched Stan's face was. Attacks for us novices might be few and far between, but our guardians were picking fights daily during this exercise. All of them were taking a lot of abuse, but they handled it with grace and good humor. â€Å"Thank you, sir,† said Eddie. He looked pleased but not conceited. â€Å"I'd be faster and stronger if I were Strigoi, of course, but I swear, you could have rivaled one with your speed there.† Stan glanced at Lissa. â€Å"You okay?† â€Å"Fine,† she said, face aglow. I could sense that she'd actually enjoyed the excitement. Her adrenaline was running high. Stan's smiling face disappeared as he turned his attention on me. â€Å"And you – what were you doing?† I stared, aghast at his harsh tone. It was what he'd said last time too. â€Å"What do you mean?† I exclaimed. â€Å"I didn't freeze or anything this time! I was ready to back him up, looking for a chance to join in.† â€Å"Yes,† he agreed. â€Å"That's exactly the problem. You were so eager to get a punch in that you forgot that you had two Moroi behind you. They might as well have not existed as far as you were concerned. You're out in the open, and you had your back to them.† I strode forward and glared at him, unconcerned about propriety. â€Å"That is not fair. If we were in the real world and a Strigoi attacked, you cannot tell me that another guardian wouldn't jump in and do everything they could to take that Strigoi down as quickly possible.† â€Å"You're probably right,† Stan said. â€Å"But you weren't thinking about eliminating the threat efficiently. You weren't thinking about your exposed Moroi. You were thinking about how quickly you could do something exciting and redeem yourself.† â€Å"Wh-what? Aren't you making a few leaps there? You're grading me on what you think was my motivation. How can you be sure what I'm thinking?† I didn't even know half the time. â€Å"Instinct,† he replied mysteriously. He took out a small pad of paper and made some notes on it. I narrowed my eyes, wishing I could see through the notepad and discern what he was writing about me. When he finished, he slipped the pad back in his coat and nodded at all of us. â€Å"See you later.† We watched him walk across the snowy grounds toward the gym where dhampirs trained. My mouth was hanging open, and I couldn't even get any words out at first. When did it end with these people? I was getting burned again and again on stupid technicalities that had nothing to do with how I'd actually perform in the real world. â€Å"That was not even fair. How can he judge me on what he thinks I was thinking?† Eddie shrugged as we continued our journey toward the dorm. â€Å"He can think whatever he wants. He's our instructor.† â€Å"Yeah, but he's going to give me another bad mark! Field experience is pointless if it can't really show how we'd do against Strigoi. I can't believe this. I'm good – I'm really good. How on earth can I be failing this?† Nobody had an actual answer for that, but Lissa noted uncomfortably, â€Å"Well†¦ whether he was fair or unfair, he had one thing right: You were great, Eddie.† I glanced over at Eddie and felt bad that I was letting my own drama take away from his success. I was pissed off – really pissed off – but Stan's wrongness was my problem to deal with. Eddie had performed brilliantly, and everyone praised him so much on the walk back that I could see a blush creeping over his cheeks. Or maybe that was just the cold. Regardless, I was happy for him. We settled into the lounge, pleased to find no one else had claimed it – and that it was warm and toasty. Each of the dorms had a few of these lounges, and all were stocked with movies and games and lots of comfy chairs and couches. They were only available for student use at certain times. On weekends, they were pretty much open the whole time, but on weekdays, they had limited hours – presumably to encourage us to do our homework. Eddie and I assessed the room and made a plan, then took up our positions. Standing against the wall, I eyed the couch Lissa and Christian were sprawled out upon with considerable envy. I'd thought the movie would distract me from being on alert, but actually, it was my own churning feelings that kept my mind spinning. I couldn't believe Stan had said what he'd said. He'd even admitted that in the heat of battle, any guardian would be trying to get into the fight. His argument about me having ulterior, glory-seeking motives was absurd. I wondered if I was in serious danger of failing this field experience. Surely, so long as I passed, they wouldn't take me from Lissa after graduation? Alberta and Dimitri had spoken like this was all just an experiment to give Lissa and me new training, but suddenly, an anxious, paranoid part of me began to wonder. Eddie was doing a great job of protecting her. Maybe they wanted to see how well she could work with other guardians. Maybe they were worried that I was only good at protecting her and not other Moroi – I'd let Mason die, after all, right? Maybe the real test here was to see if I needed to be replaced. After all, wh o was I, really? An expendable novice. She was the Dragomir princess. She would always have protection – and it didn't have to be me. The bond was pointless if I ultimately proved incompetent. Adrian's entrance put my frantic paranoia on hold. He slipped into the darkened room, winking as he flounced into an armchair near me. I had figured it was only a matter of time before he would surface. I think we were his only entertainment on campus. Or maybe not, judging from the strong smell of alcohol around him. â€Å"Are you sober?† I asked him when the movie ended. â€Å"Sober enough. What have you guys been up to?† Adrian hadn't visited my dreams since the one in the garden. He'd also laid off on some of his outrageous flirting. Most of his appearances with us were to work with Lissa or to ease his boredom. We recapped our encounter with Stan for him, playing up Eddie's bravery and not mentioning my dressing-down. â€Å"Nice work,† said Adrian. â€Å"Looks like you got a battle scar too.† He pointed to the side of Eddie's face where three red marks glared back at us. I remembered Stan's nails hitting Eddie during the struggle to free Lissa. Eddie lightly touched his cheek. â€Å"I can barely feel it.† Lissa leaned forward and studied him. â€Å"You got that protecting me.† â€Å"I got that trying to pass my field experience,† he teased. â€Å"Don't worry about it.† And that's when it happened. I saw it seize her, that compassion and undeniable urge to help others that so often filled her. She couldn't stand to see pain, couldn't stand to sit by if she could do something. I felt the power build up in her, a glorious and swirling feeling that made my toes tingle. I was experiencing how it affected her. It was fire and bliss. Intoxicating. She reached out and touched Eddie's face†¦. And the marks vanished. She dropped her hand, and the euphoria of spirit faded from both of us. â€Å"Son of a bitch,† breathed Adrian. â€Å"You weren't kidding about that.† He peered at Eddie's cheek. â€Å"Not a goddamned trace of it.† Lissa had stood up and now sank back to the couch. She leaned her head back against it and closed her eyes. â€Å"I did it. I can still do it.† â€Å"Of course you can,† said Adrian dismissively. â€Å"Now you have to show me how to do it.† She opened her eyes. â€Å"It's not that easy.† â€Å"Oh, I see,† he said in an exaggerated tone. â€Å"You grill me like crazy about how to see auras and walk in dreams, but now you won't reveal your trade secrets.† â€Å"It's not a ‘won't,'† she argued. â€Å"It's a ‘can't.'† â€Å"Well, cousin, try.† Then suddenly he raked his nails across his hand and drew blood. â€Å"Jesus Christ!† I yelped. â€Å"Are you insane?† Who was I kidding? Of course he was. Lissa reached out and held his hand, and just like before, she healed the skin. Elation filled her, but my mood suddenly dropped without any real cause. The two of them launched into a discussion I couldn't follow, using standard magical terms as well as some terms I was pretty sure they'd invented on the spot. Judging from Christian's face, it looked like he didn't understand either, and it soon became clear that Adrian and Lissa had forgotten us in their zeal over the mystery of spirit. Christian finally stood up, looking bored. â€Å"Come on, Rose. If I wanted to listen to this, I'd be back in class. I'm hungry.† Lissa glanced up. â€Å"Dinner's not for another hour and a half.† â€Å"Feeder,† he said. â€Å"I haven't had mine today.† He planted a kiss on Lissa's cheek and then left. I followed alongside him. It had started snowing again, and I glared at the flakes accusingly as they drifted down around us. When it had first started snowing in early December, I'd been excited. Now this white stuff was getting pretty damned old. As it had a few nights ago, though, being out in such harsh weather defused my mood a little, the cold air kind of snapping me out of it. With each step closer to the feeders, I felt myself calming down. A â€Å"feeder† was what we called humans who volunteered to be regular sources of blood for Moroi. Unlike Strigoi, who killed the victims they drank from, Moroi took only small quantities each day and didn't have to kill the donor. These humans lived for the high they got from vampire bites and seemed perfectly happy to spend their lives that way and separate from normal human society. It was weird but necessary for Moroi. The school usually had a feeder or two in the Moroi dorms for overnight hours, but for most of the day, students had to go to the commons to get their daily fix. As I continued walking, taking in the sights of white trees, white fences, and white boulders, something else white in the landscape caught my attention. Well, it wasn't white exactly. There was color – pale, washed-out color. I came to an abrupt halt and felt my eyes go wide. Mason stood on the other side of the quad, nearly blending in with a tree and a post. No, I thought. I'd convinced myself that this was over, but there he was, looking at me with that sorrowful, phantom face. He pointed, off toward the back of campus. I glanced that way but again had no clue what to look for. Turning back to him, I could only stare, fear twisting within me. An icy-cold hand touched the side of my neck, and I spun around. It was Christian. â€Å"What's up?† he asked. I looked back to where I'd seen Mason. He was gone, of course. I squeezed my eyes shut a moment and sighed. Then, turning back to Christian, I kept walking and said, â€Å"Nothing.† Christian usually always had some witty stream of comments whenever we were together, but he was silent as we made the rest of our journey. I was consumed with my own thoughts and worries about Mason, so I had little to say either. This sighting had only lasted a few seconds. Considering how hard it was to see out there, it seemed more than likely that he'd been a trick of the eye, right? I tried to convince myself of this for the rest of the walk. When we entered the commons and escaped the cold, it finally hit me that something was amiss with Christian. â€Å"What's wrong?† I asked, trying not to think about Mason. â€Å"Are you okay?† â€Å"Fine,† he said. â€Å"The way you just said that proves you aren't fine.† He ignored me as we went to the feeders' room. It was busier than I'd expected, and all of the little cubicles that feeders sat in were filled with Moroi. Brandon Lazar was one of them. As he fed, I caught a glimpse of a faded green bruise on his cheek and recalled that I never had found out who had beaten him up. Christian checked in with the Moroi at the door and then stood in the waiting area until he was called. I racked my brain, trying to figure out what could have caused Christian's bad mood. â€Å"What's the matter? Didn't you like the movie?† No answer. â€Å"Grossed out by Adrian's self-mutilation?† Giving Christian a hard time was a guilty pleasure. I could do this all night. No answer. â€Å"Are you – Oh.† It hit me then. I was surprised I hadn't thought of this before. â€Å"Are you upset that Lissa wanted to talk magic with Adrian?† He shrugged, which told me all I needed to know. â€Å"Come on, she doesn't like magic more than she likes you. It's just this thing with her, you know? She spent all these years thinking she couldn't do real magic, and then found out she could – except it was this wacky, completely unpredictable kind. She's just trying to understand it.† â€Å"I know,† he said tightly, staring across the expansive room without actually focusing on any of the people. â€Å"That's not the problem.† â€Å"Then why †¦Ã¢â‚¬  I let my words fade as another revelation hit me. â€Å"You're jealous of Adrian.† Christian fixed his ice-blue eyes on me, and I could tell I'd hit the mark. â€Å"I'm not jealous. I'm just – â€Å" † – feeling insecure over the fact that your girlfriend is spending a lot of time with a rich and reasonably cute guy whom she might like. Or, as we like to call it, jealous.† He turned away from me, clearly annoyed. â€Å"The honeymoon might be over between us, Rose. Damn it. Why are these people taking so long?† â€Å"Look,† I said, shifting my stance. My feet hurt after so much standing. â€Å"Didn't you listen to my romantic speech the other day about being in Lissa's heart? She's crazy about you. You're the only one she wants, and believe me, I can say that with 100 percent certainty. If there was anyone else, I'd know.† The hint of a smile crossed his lips. â€Å"You're her best friend. You could be covering for her.† I scoffed. â€Å"Not if she were with Adrian. I assure you, she has no interest in him, thank God – at least not romantically.† â€Å"He can be persuasive, though. He knows how to work his compulsion†¦Ã¢â‚¬  â€Å"He's not using it on her, though. I don't even know if he can – I think they cancel each other out. Besides, haven't you been paying attention? I'm the unfortunate object of Adrian's attention.† â€Å"Really?† asked Christian, clearly surprised. Guys were so oblivious to this sort of stuff. â€Å"I know he flirts – â€Å" â€Å"And shows up in my dreams uninvited. Seeing as I can't get away, it gives him the perfect chance to torture me with his so-called charm and attempt to be romantic.† He turned suspicious. â€Å"He shows up in Lissa's dreams too.† Shoot. Shouldn't have mentioned the dreams. What had Adrian said? â€Å"Those are instructional. I don't think you need to worry.† â€Å"People wouldn't stare if she showed up at some party with Adrian.† â€Å"Ah,† I said. â€Å"So this is what it's really about. You think you're going to drag her down?† â€Å"I'm not that good †¦ at those kinds of social things,† he admitted in a rare show of vulnerability. â€Å"And I think Adrian's got a better reputation than me.† â€Å"Are you joking?† â€Å"Come on, Rose. Drinking and smoking aren't even in the same league as people thinking you're going to turn Strigoi. I saw the way everyone acted when she took me to dinners and stuff at the ski lodge. I'm a liability. She's the only representative from her family. She's going to spend the rest of her life tied up with politics, trying to get in good with people. Adrian could do a lot more for her than I could.† I resisted the urge to literally shake some sense into him. â€Å"I can see where you're coming from, but there's one flaw in your airtight logic. There's nothing going on with her and Adrian.† He looked away and didn't say anything else. I suspected his feelings went beyond her simply being with another guy. As he'd even admitted, he had a whole tangle of insecurity about Lissa. Being with her had done wonders for his attitude and sociability, but at the end of the day, he still had trouble dealing with coming from a â€Å"tainted† family. He still worried he wasn't good enough for her. â€Å"Rose is right,† an unwelcome voice said behind us. Preparing my best glare, I turned around to face Jesse. Naturally, Ralf lurked nearby. Jesse's assigned novice, Dean, stood watch at the doorway. They apparently had a more formal bodyguard relationship. Jesse and Ralf hadn't been in line when we arrived, but they'd apparently wandered up and heard enough to piece together some of our conversation. â€Å"You're still royal. You have every right to be with her.† â€Å"Wow, talk about a turnaround,† I said. â€Å"Weren't you guys just telling me the other day how Christian was about to turn Strigoi at any moment? I'd watch your necks, if I were you. He looks dangerous.† Jesse shrugged. â€Å"Hey, you said he was clean, and if anyone knows Strigoi, it's you. Besides, we're actually starting to think that rebellious Ozera nature is a good thing.† I eyed him suspiciously, assuming there must be some trick here. Yet he looked sincere, like he really was convinced Christian was safe. â€Å"Thanks,† said Christian, a slight sneer curling his lips. â€Å"Now that you've endorsed me and my family, I can finally get on with my life. It's the only thing that's been holding me back.† â€Å"I'm serious,† said Jesse. â€Å"The Ozeras have been kind of quiet lately, but they used to be one of the strongest families out there. They could be again – especially you. You're not afraid to do things that you aren't supposed to. We like that. If you'd get over your antisocial bullshit, you could make the right friends and go far. Might make you stop worrying so much about Lissa.† Christian and I exchanged glances. â€Å"What are you getting at?† he asked. Jesse smiled and cast a covert glance around us. â€Å"Some of us have been getting together. We've formed a group – sort of a way for those of us from the better families to unite, you know? Things are kind of crazy, what with those Strigoi attacks last month and people not knowing what to do. There's also talk about making us fight and finding new ways to hand out the guardians.† He said it with a sneer, and I bristled at hearing guardians described like objects. â€Å"Too many non-royals are trying to take charge.† â€Å"Why is that a problem if their ideas are good?† I demanded. â€Å"Their ideas aren't good. They don't know their place. Some of us have started thinking of ways to protect ourselves from that and look out for each other. I think you'd like what we've learned to do. After all, we're the ones who need to keep making decisions, not dhampirs and nobody Moroi. We're the elite. The best. Join us, and there are things we could do to help you with Lissa.† I couldn't help it. I laughed. Christian simply looked disgusted. â€Å"I take back what I said earlier,† he told them. â€Å"This is what I've been waiting for my whole life. An invitation to join your tree house club.† Ralf, big and lumbering, took a step forward. â€Å"Don't screw with us. This is serious.† Christian sighed. â€Å"Then don't screw with me. If you really think I want to hang out with you guys and try to make things even better for Moroi who are already spoiled and selfish, then you're even stupider than I thought you were. And that was pretty stupid.† Anger and embarrassment filled both Jesse and Ralf's faces, but mercifully, Christian's name was called just then. He seemed considerably cheered as we walked across the room. Nothing like a confrontation with two assholes to make you feel better about your love life. Christian's assigned feeder tonight was a woman named Alice, who was the oldest feeder on campus. Most Moroi preferred young donors, but Christian, being the twisted person he was, liked her because she was kind of senile. She wasn't that old – sixties – but too many vampire endorphins over her life had permanently affected her. â€Å"Rose,† she said, turning her dazed blue eyes on me. â€Å"You aren't usually with Christian. Have you and Vasilisa had a fight?† â€Å"Nope,† I said. â€Å"Just getting a change of scenery.† â€Å"Scenery,† she murmured, glancing at a nearby window. Moroi kept windows tinted to block out light, and I doubted a human could see anything. â€Å"The scenery is always changing. Have you noticed that?† â€Å"Not our scenery,† said Christian, sitting beside her. â€Å"That snow's not going anywhere. Not for a few months.† She sighed and gave him an exasperated look. â€Å"I wasn't talking about the scenery.† Christian gave me an amused smile, then leaned over and sank his teeth into her neck. Her expression grew slack, all talk of scenery or whatever she'd meant forgotten as he drank from her. I lived around vampires so much that I didn't even think about their fangs half the time. Most Moroi were actually pretty good at hiding them. It was only in moments like these that I remembered the power a vampire had. Usually, when I watched a vampire feed, I was reminded of when Lissa and I had run away from the Academy, and I'd let her feed off of me. I'd never reached the crazy addiction levels of a feeder, but I had enjoyed the brief high. I used to want it in a way I could never admit to anybody. In our world, only humans gave blood. Dhampirs who did it were cheap and humiliated. Now, when I watched a vampire drink, I no longer thought about how good the high felt. Instead, I flashed back to that room in Spokane where Isaiah, our Strigoi captor, had fed off of Eddie. The feelings that stirred up in me were anything but good. Eddie had suffered horribly, and I hadn't been able to do anything except sit there and watch. Grimacing, I turned away from Christian and Alice. When we left the feeders' room, Christian looked more vibrant and upbeat. â€Å"The weekend's here, Rose. No classes – and you get your day off.† â€Å"No,† I said, having almost forgotten. Damn it. Why did he have to remind me? I was almost starting to feel better after the Stan incident. I sighed. â€Å"I have community service.†

Monday, January 6, 2020

Biography of William Still, American Abolitionist

William Still (October 7, 1821–July 14, 1902) was a prominent abolitionist who coined the term Underground Railroad and, as one of the chief conductors in Pennsylvania helped thousands of people get free and settled away from slavery. Throughout his life, Still fought not only to abolish slavery, but also to provide African-Americans in northern enclaves with civil rights. Stills work with runaways is documented in his seminal text, The Underground Rail Road.  Still believed that the book  could encourage the race in efforts of self-elevation. Fast Facts: William Still Known For: Abolitionist, Father of the Underground RailroadBorn: October 7, 1821 near Medford, New JerseyParents: Levin and Charity (Sidney) SteelDied: July 14, 1902 in PhiladelphiaEducation: Little formal education, self-taughtPublished Works: The Underground Rail RoadSpouse: Letitia George (m. 1847)Children:  Caroline Matilda Still, William Wilberforce Still, Robert George Still, Frances Ellen Still Early Life Still was born a free black man in near the town of Medford, in Burlington County, New Jersey, the youngest of 18 children born to Levin and Sidney Steel. Although he gave his official birthdate as October 7, 1821, Still provided the date of November 1819 on the 1900 census. Still was the son of people who had been enslaved laborers on a potato and corn farm on the eastern shore of Maryland owned by Saunders Griffin. William Stills father Levin Steel was able to purchase his own freedom, but his wife Sidney had to escape enslavement twice. The first time she escaped she brought along her four oldest children. However, she and her children were recaptured and returned to slavery. The second time Sidney Steel ran away, she brought two daughters, but her sons were sold to slave owners in Mississippi. Once the family was settled in New Jersey, Levin changed the spelling of their name to Still and Sidney took a new name, Charity. Throughout William Stills childhood, he worked with his family on their farm and also found work as a woodcutter. Although Still received very little formal education, he did learn to read and write, teaching himself by extensive reading. Stills literary skills would help him become a prominent abolitionist and advocate for freed African-Americans. Marriage and Family In 1844 at the age of 23, Still relocated to Philadelphia, where he worked first as a janitor and then as a clerk for the Pennsylvania Anti-Slavery Society. Soon he became an active member of the organization, and by 1850 he served as the chairman of the committee established to help runaway slaves. While he was in Philadelphia, Still met and married Letitia George. Following their marriage in 1847, the couple had four children: Caroline Matilda Still, one of the first African-American women doctors in the United States; William Wilberforce Still, a prominent African-American lawyer in Philadelphia; Robert George Still, a journalist and print shop owner; and Frances Ellen Still, an educator who was named after the poet Frances Watkins Harper. The Underground Railroad Between 1844 and 1865, Still helped at least 60 enslaved African-Americans escape bondage. Still interviewed many of the enslaved African-Americans seeking freedom, men, women, and families, documenting where they came from, the difficulties they met and help they found along the way, their final destination, and the pseudonyms they used to relocate. During one of his interviews, Still realized that he was questioning his older brother Peter, who had been sold to another slaveholder when their mother escaped. During his time with the Anti-Slavery Society, Still put together records of more than 1,000 former enslaved people, keeping the information hidden until slavery was abolished in 1865. With the passage of the Fugitive Slave Act in 1850, Still was elected chairman of the Vigilance Committee organized to find a way to circumvent the legislation. African-American Civic Leader Since his work with the Underground Railroad had to be kept secret, Still kept a fairly low public profile until slaves were freed. Nonetheless, he was a fairly prominent leader of the African-American community: in 1855, he traveled to Canada to observe enclaves of former slaves. By 1859, Still began the fight to desegregate Philadelphias public transportation system by publishing a letter in a local newspaper. Although Still was supported by many in this endeavor, some members of the African-American community were less interested in gaining civil rights. As a result, Still published a pamphlet entitled, ​A Brief Narrative of the Struggle for the Rights of the Colored People of Philadelphia in the City Railway Cars in 1867. After eight years of lobbying, the Pennsylvania legislature passed a law ending segregation of public transportation. Still was also an organizer of a YMCA for African-American youngsters; an active participant in the Freedmens Aid Commission; and a founding member of the Berean Presbyterian Church. He also helped establish a Mission School in North Philadelphia. After 1865 In 1872, seven years after the abolition of slavery, Still published his collected interviews in a book entitled, The Underground Rail Road. The book included more than 1,000 interviews and was 800 pages long: the tales are heroic and harrowing, and they illustrate how people suffered deeply and sacrificed much to escape slavery. Notably, the text underscored the fact that the abolitionist movement in Philadelphia was primarily organized and maintained by African-Americans. As a result,  Still became known as the Father of the Underground Railroad. Of his book, Still said, we very much need works on various topics from the pens of colored men to represent the race intellectually. The publication of The Underground Rail Road  was important to the body of literature published by African-Americans documenting their history as abolitionists and former slaves. Stills book was published in three editions and went on to become the most circulated text on the Underground Railroad. In  1876, Still placed the book on exhibit at the Philadelphia Centennial Exposition to remind visitors of the legacy of slavery in the United States. By the late 1870s, he sold an estimated 5,000–10,000 copies. In 1883, he issued the third expanded edition that included an autobiographical sketch. Businessman During his career as an abolitionist and civil rights activist, Still acquired considerable personal wealth. He began purchasing real estate throughout Philadelphia as a young man. Later, he ran a coal business and established a store selling new and used stoves. He also received proceeds from the sales of his book. To publicize his book, Still built a network of efficient, entrepreneurial, college-educated sales agents to sell what he described as a collection of quiet examples of what fortitude can achieve where freedom is the goal. Death Still died in 1902 of heart trouble. In Stills obituary, The New York Times wrote that he was one of the best-educated members of his race, who was known throughout the country as the Father of the Underground Railroad. Sources Gara, Larry. William Still and the Underground Railroad. Pennsylvania History: A Journal of Mid-Atlantic Studies 28.1 (1961): 33–44.Hall, Stephen G. To Render the Private Public: William Still and the Selling of The Underground Rail Road. The Pennsylvania Magazine of History and Biography 127.1 (2003): 35–55.Hendrick, Willene and George Hendrick. Fleeing for Freedom: Stories of the Underground Railroad as Told by Levi Coffin and William Still. Chicago: Ivan R. Dee, 2004Khan, Lurey. William Still and the Underground Railroad: Fugitive Slaves and Family Ties. New York: iUniverse, 2010.Mitchell, Frances Waters. William Still. Negro History Bulletin 5.3 (1941): 50–51.Still, William.. The Underground Rail Road Records: With a Life of the Author. Philadelphia: William Still, 1886.William Still: An African-American Abolitionist. Still Family Archives. Philadelphia: Temple University.